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Diabetes: Sweet Enemy or the Enemy Brought by Sweets?

Diabetes FactsThe disability of the body either to produce, or to use and store simple sugar is known as Diabetes. The disease is characterized by the drastic rise of the body’s “sugar” that is as a rule a consequence of the glucose backing up in the bloodstream.

History

Diabetes has been known since the ancient times when the disease significant for the excessive volume of urine. Actually, the name of it comes from Greek words meaning ‘running through’ and ‘siphon’ which were used by Aretaeus.

Nature

Occurring frequently and affecting nearly every body cell, diabetes is an important metabolic disease that is considered to be the major reason of death and disability on the territory of theUnited States of America. The explanation that is given by scientists is simple, for diabetes is a so-called symbol of western lifestyle with its various diets, full of harmful components. That means that in stead of native dieting, more commercial food becomes an essential part of the regular intake.

How everything works

The whole human organism is fueled by the carbohydrates that are the source of energy transmitted to the cells. If to consider the usual process of digestion, food sugars and carbohydrates change into the sugar glucose. In the form of glycogen, glucose is kept in muscle tissue and liver. After a person swallows food, the level of blood sugar increases and stabilizes in one or two hours. If the amount of hormones is too low, the level of sugar may dramatically increase or decrease. Glucagon as well as insulin is produced by the pancreas which is a gland that is located in the upper part of the abdomen. The pancreas is of a dotted nature and contains alpha and beta cells. The beta cells release insulin after the meal took place; by this it helps glucose to enter cells of the body and to lower the level of glucose to its normal rate. Alpha cells are responsible for glucagon which is released from the liver and later changed into glucose. By this, disturbed metabolism leads to the accumulation of sugar in blood and to the diabetes.

Types

Among the types of the diabetes one distinguishes its 3 main types. Type 1 is known as juvenile-onset diabetes when the body is fully dependant on the injected supplies of insulin for its body production stops. It is an insulin hormone that makes it possible for the body to consume glucose that is located in food and brings energy. By this, daily insulin injections should be made by those people who suffer from this type of diabetes in order to endure their life span. The most vulnerable category of humans are said to be children and young adults. However, it is not age determined, so that people of various age groups may suffer.

Another type of diabetes is the Type 2 diabetes or adult-onset that is characterized by absence of insulin dependence. The disease is the consequence of the situation in which not enough insulin is produced by the body or the insulin is not properly used. In most cases people who are older than 40, have problems with their weight, usually overweighting, and have frequent cases of their family members’ diabetes vulnerability. However, the younger people, adolescence if to be precise, are the groups that may appear to suffer nowadays.

Type 3 diabetes is gestational diabetes which develops or becomes discovered in the periods of pregnancy. After the birth to the baby is given, this diabetes disappears, but the woman who has experienced it, is under a great risk of later type 2 diabetes development.

Symptoms

Similarly to other diseases, diabetes has a list of vivid symptoms that may help to distinguish it if being experienced. Among the factors that researchers link to the possible aetiology of diabetes are the following categories: heredity, dietary instability and obesity, endocrine imbalance, serious physic stress, infection. Genetic factors are said to be the most significant in diabetes susceptibility. Nevertheless, environment and diet are of no less importance. Mentioning the latter, one means the food that is rich in high-fibre complex carbohydrates while speaking about diabetes protective diet. On the contrary, a diet which presupposes refined fibre-depleted carbohydrate food is a main cause of diabetes predisposition. Moreover, the type 2 diabetes obesity brings carbohydrate intolerance, insulin insensitivity in the muscle tissue and fat, and higher insulin levels. Naturally, the first thing to be regarded is a loss of weight which is called to improve the possible metabolic disturbance. By this, the disease is nothing but a complex condition that is characterized by a multitude of metabolic imbalances.

Simply speaking diabetes is usually associated with the feeling of permanent thirst. People as a rule, lose weight, have an increased hunger and blurry vision, visit toilets because of the urination necessity, are easily irritable, suffer from unexplained fatigue and numbness in the hands and feet. Moreover, it takes much time for their wounds to be healed. Their skin, gum and bladder are frequently infected. Occasionally, there are no vivid symptoms that one has experienced, so that the disease is recognized with much difficulty. In such cases one may state about gradual nature of the disease that is entirely the same as the one that is symptom depicted.

Concerning the categories of people who may suffer, one can state with certainty that the disease can occur in anyone. However, it sounds reasonable to stress that those people the close relatives of who suffer from diabetes are the people who are likely to continue their family history. Naturally, high rate of cholesterol, overweighting, physical inactivity, and high blood pressure are those factors that may influence the possibility of disease occurrence. Moreover, age and nationality are the other important factors to be mentioned here. While becoming older people appear to be less likely to sustain the diabetes. That is more, Native Americans, African Americans, and Asian Americans are claimed to be the categories that are very likely to develop diabetes. Moreover, developing countries are predicted to bear the blur of the disease in the 21 century. The disease is said to be a symbol of life of the countries with the low and middle income rates.

Facts about diabetes that is worth mentioning:

  • 438 million people are believed to suffer from diabetes in 2030.
  • It is an African region that is said to experience the highest increase of the diabetes prevalence.
  • 70% of the cases of diabetes occurrence happen in the low and middle income countries.
  • The age group that is affected by diabetes is the one of 40-59 years.
  • It is diabetes that is said to be the major reason of illness and death that happen among the premature.

Possible complications

Frequently, it is a complication of the diabetes which gives a hint to the occurrence of the disease. Among the basic complications are neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and arteriosclerosis.

Diabetes neuropathies are the most frequent complication of diabetes that occurs for a long time. From 60% to 70% of diabetics are said to have either mild or severe nervous system disturbance. It results in vascular and nervous system complications that affect the brain and peripheral nerves. As far as it is a metabolic disease it results in later leg amputation, arms, abdomen and back affection, etc.        

Diabetes retinopathy is associated with an eye disease and means narrowing, hardening, haemorrhaging and severing of the retina veins and capillaries. It happens in those cases when the person suffers for more than 20 years. However, it is diabetes which is a main reason of 6% of blindness in adults the age of who ranges from 20 to 74.

Diabetes arteriosclerosis is a disease of the vessels. The main reason of deaths among diabetics is cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the people with diabetes are twice more likely to suffer from the heart strokes.

Diabetes nephropathy is an ‘integral part’ of diabetes that happens less frequently in comparison to the retinopathy. It is a disease that affects kidneys and leads to renal damage.

By this, diabetes is a disease that has long-term complications. However, among the simplest means of diabetes prevention is a blood glucose control that is going to reduce the risk of the disease occurrence.

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